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Ilturco un'associazione che è più di uno In printing, a long, narrow tray open at one end into which assembled lines of type are transferred by the compositor from a manual composing stick, or from a typesetting machine, to await make-up into pages. Galleys were originally about 10 x 6 inches in size and made of wood, but in the early 19th century, metal trays came into use and their length was extended to about 22 inches to accommodate several pages of type. An impression taken from type composed in long columns, arranged in trays called galleys, before it has been made up into pages, to allow the author and proofreader to inspect the text and make any corrections before the work goes to press. Although galley proofs usually do ), usually stored in a container to keep the pieces together. Games are usually stored in the curriculum room or children's room of a library. Examples can be seen in the online exhibition The subject of video games and computer games in libraries has attracted an increasing amount of attention in library publications and at library conferences, particularly among librarians serving young adults. Public libraries must decide how much time and money they wish to invest in developing collections for game players. in Library Science from Columbia in 1954, he founded his own company, Eugene Garfield Associates, and began work on what was to become made ISI a major information company, but Garfield's greatest achievement is his development of the concept of citation indexing, which has given generations of researchers access to current bibliographical information and facilitated quantitative analysis in the study of scholarly communication. Click here to learn more about the response of libraries to this new demand. His career in scientific communication and information science began in 1951 when he joined the Welch Medical Indexing Project at Johns Hopkins University. Garfield is currently Editor-in-Chief of The number of times a mechanical counting device, located at the entrance to or exit from a library, is automatically activated whenever a person enters or leaves during a designated period of time (day, week, month, year), an important measure of library use. A set of issues or entire volumes missing from a library's holdings of a serial title. In most facilities, the counter is located near, attached to, or part of the security gate. This can occur when a subscription is canceled and later resumed or when items are lost or stolen. Totals are recorded at regular intervals, usually by the staff at the circulation desk. Most libraries try to fill gaps in periodical subscriptions with microfilm or microfiche, or by relying on the services of a back issues dealer, when online full-text is not available. Gate counts provide statistical information on traffic patterns, helpful in establishing library hours and anticipating staffing needs. Synonymous with An illustration, map, or other insert, larger than the volume in which it is bound, that must be unfolded horizontally to the left or right to be fully viewed. Also, a method of folding a sheet of paper into three sections in which the two ends are folded toward each other over the center, like a triptych, used in advertising, performance programs, restaurant menus, etc. Computer software that allows the user to access data stored on a host computer via a network. Also refers to the hardware device that interconnects two separate networks, providing a pathway for the transfer of data and any protocol conversion required, for example, between the messaging protocols of two different e-mail systems. In binding, the process of assembling and arranging in correct sequence the folded sections of a book prior to sewing them through the back fold or milling the clamped back folds preparatory to gluing the sections to the cover in adhesive binding. Signature marks are used by the binder to ensure that the sections are gathered in correct sequence. In medieval manuscripts, a gathering (called a quire) consisted of one or more parchment or vellum bifolia (usually four) nested inside each other, hair side facing hair side and flesh side facing flesh side, sewn through the back fold to leather or hemp cords that attached the book block to the boards. The unit of work in medieval scriptoria was usually the gathering--a change of scribe can sometimes be detected from one quire to the next. In modern binding, a gathering consists of a single sheet, or several sheets, of paper folded to form a single group of leaves in a book or other printed publication. , popular on ornamental bindings of the late 15th to 17th centuries. The designs were sometimes built up through repeated impressions. Click here to see an elaborate Renaissance example (Saxon State Library), and here to see two 19th-century examples (Otto G. When the technique is combined with edge painting, the results can be very elegant (see this example, courtesy of the Princeton University Library). Also spelled The width of motion picture film, measured from edge to edge in millimeters, the most common gauges in American film collections being 35mm, 16mm, and 8mm. Pathé introduced 28mm in 1912 and 9.5mm in 1922, but they did not survive the standardization brought by Kodak. Different widths have historically been manufactured for different markets, and each gauge has its own family of associated equipment and supplies. Because small-gauge film is less expensive to use, 16mm and 8mm have been more attractive to amateurs and educational filmmakers. Since it was first introduced in the 1890s, 35mm has been the standard gauge for the commercial motion picture industry. The wider the gauge, the greater the frame area and the crisper the image. This is the reason images on 70mm IMAX film appear to be sharper than those on standard 35mm film. In Founded in 1970 as the Task Force on Gay Liberation of the American Library Association (ALA), GLBTRT is a permanent round table that serves as an advocate for gays, lesbians, and bisexuals employed in libraries and for the inclusion of materials on gay, lesbian, and bisexual issues in library collections. GLBTRT hosts the electronic mailing list GLBTRT-L, sponsors annual literary awards in fiction and nonfiction, and publishes the quarterly A library supplier that provides office and library supplies, furniture, security systems, and automation software to libraries, schools, and other educational institutions largely through its trade catalog. A news sheet in which current events, legal notices, public appointments, etc., are recorded on a regular basis. Also, a journal officially issued by a government, particularly in Great Britain. The word is derived from the name of an Italian coin that was equivalent at one point in time to the price of a news sheet. Also, an index of the names of the places and geographic features shown on the maps contained in an atlas, usually printed in a separate section following the maps, with locations indicated by page number (or map number) and grid coordinates. Some gazetteers include information about major geographic features such as rivers, lakes, mountains, cities, etc. (see the The result of a photographic process in which a negative is printed on a sheet of paper or other support coated with an emulsion of gelatin (an animal protein) containing light-sensitive silver salts. After brief exposure to the negative, the paper is immersed in a chemical solution that allows the latent image to develop. Invented in 1873 by Peter Mawdsley, gelatin silver papers were commercially available by 1885. Within a decade, prints made on gelatin papers superseded the earlier albumen print because they were more stable, did not yellow, and were easier to produce. Glossy, matte, or textured, gelatin prints are the standard medium in modern black and white photography. Click here to see a selection of early gelatin silver prints from the Victoria & Albert Museum and here to see examples from the Getty Museum. Synonymous with A very small tintype, usually a portrait, about 1/2 x 1 inch in size for mounting in jewelry or in a carte-de-visite size cardboard holder designed to be inserted into a Victorian carte-de-visite photograph album, popular from the mid-1860s until about 1880 (see this example). : 2010), there is a consistent 80-20 split between females and males in the LIS workforce in the United States, and for many years the average salaries of male librarians have been higher than those of females (7.4 percent higher in 2009). The average salaries of females exceed those of males only in school library media centers, where 93 percent of the placements are female. A diagram, usually in the form of an inverted tree, with branches showing the lineage of a person or group of persons who share a common ancestor, sometimes printed on the endpapers of biographical or historical works, particularly those concerning the reigns of sovereigns or the lives of titled nobility. The study of the descent from a common ancestor (or ancestors) of a specific individual, family, or group of persons. Genealogical research often requires the use of archival materials. Genealogical resources are increasingly available in digital form (: National Genealogical Society. Also refers to an enumeration of ancestors and their descendants in natural order of succession, usually in the form of a family tree. See this 16th-century manuscript Works that cannot be assigned to a particular class on the basis of subject, theme, or treatment because their nonspecialized or diverse nature defies specific classification, for example, general encyclopedias and world almanacs. In library classification and bibliography, a separate category is reserved for general works, usually appearing at the beginning of the schedule or list. In Dewey Decimal Classification, general works are classified 0XX with X in the range of 0-9; in Library of Congress Classification, they are classified in the As. Synonymous with A type, class, or style of literature, music, film, or art. Genre criticism originated with Aristotle, who divided literature into three basic categories: dramatic, epic, and lyric. Today, literary works are classified by form (novel, short story, poetry, drama, etc.), by theme (adventure, fantasy, horror, mystery, romance, science fiction, western, etc.), and less often by subject (carpe diem poem). Also refers to a category of representational art in which the subject is a person (as in a portrait), an object (still-life), or a scene from daily life, rather than a theme derived from history, mythology, imagination, etc. By extension, a In 2007, the Policy and Standards Division (PSD) of the Library of Congress (then the Cataloging Policy and Support Office or CPSO) began to develop genre/form terms for library materials, with the intention of creating a thesaurus distinct from . In the same year, the Network Development and MARC Standards Office (NDMSO) assigned the MARC source code "lcgft" to the new thesaurus. In MARC 21 authority records, genre/form terms are coded as follows: 008/11: z ("Other") 040: $a DLC $b eng $c DLC $f lcgft In bibliographic records, genre/form terms are contained in the 655 field as follows: 655 #7 $a [Term}. lcgft As of June 2011, the Library of Congress had announced no plans to discontinue use of form subdivisions in LC subject headings. Form subdivisions (tags 600, 610, 630, 650, and 651) are to be applied even if a genre/form term (tag 655) appears in the same record. LCCN format for genre/form terms is the same as for subject headings, except that the two-character prefix used is "gf" instead of "sh." Genre/form terms differ from subject headings in describing what an item A standardized code, 1-7 characters in length, consisting of lowercase letters of the English alphabet and embedded or trailing hyphens, used in library cataloging to allow places reflected in the subject headings assigned to a bibliographic item to be designated by codes in the MARC record representing the item. Over 500 discrete codes have been established to indicate countries, first order political divisions of some countries, regions, geographic features, outer space, and celestial bodies (An index in which the entries are listed by their geographic location (city, state, country, etc.). Also refers to an index that lists the geographic locations mentioned in the text of a document. Synonymous with A computer-based system consisting of hardware, software, geographic information, and personnel designed to facilitate the efficient capture, storage, maintenance, manipulation, analysis, and display of spatially distributed data, providing an automated link between the data and its location in space, usually in relation to a system of coordinates (latitude, longitude, elevation or depth, etc.). The data can be on any scale, from microscopic to global. A GIS differs from a map in being a digital, rather than an analog, representation. Each spatial feature is stored as a separate layer of data that can be easily altered using techniques of quantitative analysis. Any category of information that has a geographic component can be mapped in a GIS, allowing thematic maps to be constructed from layers of data representing traditional cartographic information and from data sets supplied from other sources (census data, health statistics, economic data, law enforcement statistics, etc.). Also, a map can be either input or output in a GIS, but the output may also be one or more data sets. In the plural, the term refers to the field within the earth sciences devoted to the study of computer-based systems for the analysis of spatial data. GIS technology is used in scientific research, resource management, development planning, and military defense. The The name most commonly used to identify a specific geographic location, feature, or area, preferred by catalogers in establishing the correct form of entry, not necessarily the same as the political name (In library classification, the division of a class by geographic area (region, country, state, city, etc.). For example, in Library of Congress Classification, the division of the class P (Literature) into PR (English literature), PS (American literature), etc. Also, the extension of an existing subject heading by the addition of a subheading indicating the geographic area to which treatment of the topic is limited (An organization that prepares and publishes maps, charts, and other cartographic materials concerning the geography of a specific nation and its territories, usually with government approval or sponsorship (: U. Geological Survey, British Geological Survey, Geological Survey of Canada). In libraries without a separate map section, publications of the USGS may be shelved with the government documents collection. Also refers to the activity of gathering data for the production of cartographic materials and for geological research. A composite diagram showing, in vertical sequence, the geologic strata underlying a given location or area of the earth's surface, usually color-coded when printed as an index on a geologic map, with the names of the various rock formations indicated along one side of the column. Click here to see examples on a series of geologic maps of Great Britain, courtesy of the School of Ocean and Earth Science, Southampton University, and here to see examples detailing a geologic cross section. Geologic columns often appear in conjunction with a geologic time scale (see this example). Also refers to the sequence of strata shown in such a diagram. Synonymous with A map showing the distribution of the types of rock and sediment lying at or beneath the surface of a specific region, usually by means of color, shading, and/or printed symbols (see this example). Major fault lines, landslides, mineral deposits, fossils, and the age of rock formations may also be indicated. For historic reasons, two standards have been followed in the colors used to represent specific rock types on geologic maps, American and International, but they are similar. The Federal Geographic Data Committee has developed the A chronological arrangement of events in geologic history, usually presented in the form of a vertical chart with the event earliest in time at the bottom and the latest at the top (click here and here to see examples). Click here to see a geologic time scale in the form of a spiral. To see other examples, try a keywords search on the term "geologic time scale" in Information that identifies the geographic location and describes or depicts the physical properties of the earth's natural and/or man-made features. Geological Survey node of the National Geospatial Data Clearinghouse. Derived from surveying, mapping, remote sensing, and other technologies, geospatial data is a subset of spatial data. A water-based preparation made from slaked plaster of Paris, white lead, and bole (soft greasy red or yellow clay), used in medieval manuscript illumination as a flexible ground for raised gilding. Gesso was laid down in layers to build up the portions of an underdrawing to which metallic leaf was later applied. Because of its color, it could easily be seen by the gilder and imparts a warm pinky glow to pages from which the gilding has begun to wear away, as on this miniature in a 13th-century German psalter (Morgan Library, MS M.280). A searchable database of controlled vocabulary, containing over 1 million names and other details concerning places, maintained on the Internet by the Getty Research Institute in Los Angeles, California. Although the terms are not linked to maps, latitude and longitude are given in each entry, with the place name's position in a hierarchy of geographic names. Click here to connect to A person who writes or prepares a work for, and in the name of, another person who may be famous but is usually not a writer by profession (see this example). Autobiographies and memoirs are often written in this way. Although a ghost writer normally receives compensation for services rendered, sometimes even a share of royalties, the writer's name may or may not be listed as joint author on the title page. Also spelled meaning "to spray" or "to squirt." In giclée printing, a photograph or original work of art is digitally scanned at high resolution and the resulting digital image is printed on a high-end 8- to 12-color ink-jet printer (Canon, Epson, Hewlett-Packard, Mac Dermid Colorspan, Roland, etc.) using archival quality inks on a suitable substrate (canvas, fine art or photo-base paper, etc.). The process provides more accurate color than most other means of reproduction, including traditional gelatin silver photographic printing processes, and allows artists to reproduce their work as needed or on-demand, at reasonable cost by eliminating the prohibitive up-front costs of mass production. Unlike negatives and film, archived digital files do not deteriorate in quality over time, and the digital image can be reproduced to almost any size on various media, permitting the artist to customize the print for a specific client. Click here to see examples and here to learn more about the process. An acronym for Graphics Interchange Format, one of the two most commonly used file formats for storing graphic images displayed on the World Wide Web (others being JPEG and TIFF). An algorithm developed by Unisys, GIF is protected by patent, but in practice the company has not required users to obtain a license. The most recent version of GIF supports color, animation, and data compression. Pronounced One or more books or other items donated to a library, usually by an individual but sometimes by a group, organization, estate, or other library. In academic libraries, desk copies and review copies are sometimes received as gifts from members of the teaching faculty. Most gifts of materials are unsolicited and arrive unexpectedly, but gift collections may also be solicited by the library. Donated items are usually evaluated in accordance with the library's collection development policy and either added to the collection or disposed of, usually in a book sale or exchange with another library. Click here to see a miniature of Dirk II, Count of Holland, and his wife bestowing a 9th-century Gospel book on the Abbey of Egmond, courtesy of the Koninklijke Bibliotheek. A leather binding produced for presentation by someone other than the author (click here to see a 17th-century example in black morocco, courtesy of St. Also refers to copies of an edition which are specially bound at the publisher's order for the gift market, especially at Christmas time. Click here and here to view examples, courtesy of the Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Columbia University. In modern usage, a book purchased as a gift for another person (or persons). Coffee table books are often purchased for this purpose. Also spelled A formal library program allowing users to purchase items for the library collection in memory of a deceased person or in honor of a special occasion for a loved one (birthday, anniversary, etc.), with selections usually made by the library. Some programs offer a memorial bookplate and may give the honoree the privilege of "first read" (see this example at a public library and this example at an academic library). Synonymous with The donation to a library of a significant volume of materials, usually about a specific subject or person, in a particular genre, of a certain format, etc., assembled by one or more persons based on personal interests. Such gifts may be unsolicited or solicited by the library. When the collection contains rare and valuable items, the donor(s) may be honored by the library at a special reception or in other ways. The materials may be housed separately, given special honorary bookplates, or distinguished by some other method. If the collection is archival, the donor may specify restrictions on use. Recent examples include the donation in 2003 by Edwin and Terry Murray of over 55,000 comic books and thousands of fanzines to the Duke University Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library, giving it one of the largest archival comics collections in the United States. A small store on the premises of a library, offering books and specialty items connected with books, libraries, and reading for sale to benefit the library, often operated by a Friends of the Library group. Some have created Web sites that allow customers to shop via the Internet, for example, the Library of Congress Shop and the Library Shop at the New York Public Library. In computing, an initialism that stands for "garbage in, garbage out," a slang expression for the axiom that the quality of output a user receives from a computer is directly proportional to the quality of the input submitted. The application of gold or silver to a surface as decoration and/or protection. Three methods were used in medieval manuscripts to gild initial letters (Koninklijke Bibliotheek), decorative borders (Cary Collection), and miniatures (Getty Museum, MS 65). Gold was always the first color applied to an underdrawing, as in this example (British Library, Arundel 439). Ink made from powdered gold mixed with a binding medium (called shell gold) was used for detail work and in chrysography. Click here to learn more about the process of gilding, courtesy of . Gilding was used in illuminated manuscripts as a background (Getty, MS Ludwig I 8); to depict crowns and other metallic objects (Getty, MS 1); to show light not visible to normal sight, such as halos (Getty, MS 1) and other forms of radiance ( and here to see a rare example of text stamped on a gilt background in a 13th-century German manuscript (Morgan Library, MS M.711). To learn more about gilding in medieval manuscript production, see the . Metallic leaf was also used in tooling and blocking to decorate leather and vellum book covers. Gilding is also used in Islamic manuscripts (see this Ottoman example, courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art). In deluxe editions, gold leaf is sometimes applied to the head, tail, and/or fore-edge of the sections of a book and burnished to give the volume an especially luxurious appearance. In the book trade, the following abbreviations are used to describe gilt edges: Left unburnished, a gilt edge is antique. Click here to see gilt edges on a 16th-century edition (Bryn Mawr College Library) and here to see edges gilt in stripes on an 18th-century edition (Otto G. Click here to see gilt edges combined with marbled endleaves and gold-tooled leather doublures for an especially luxurious effect (Princeton University Library). Other examples can be seen in the George Glazer Gallery. To produce A book with an outer wrapper made of cloth or soft, flexible leather extending beyond the edges of the inner cover far enough to be knotted, allowing the volume to hang upside down when the knot was slipped under a belt or girdle tied round the waist. Click here to see a 15th-century example (Royal Library of Denmark) and here to see modern replicas of medieval girdle bindings (University of Iowa Libraries). Geoffrey Glaister writes in (Getty Museum/British Library, 1994) that it was also employed by wealthy women for carrying prayer books used in private devotion, sometimes very small volumes in bindings made of precious metals. An adhesive preparation made from egg white (albumen in colloidal solution) used in tooling and edge gilding to permanently affix metallic leaf. Synonymous with : Emily), sometimes the same as that of a living relative or deceased ancestor but distinct from the surname identifying members of the same family (Dickinson). Glair is usually purchased dry as albumen and mixed with water or vinegar prior to use. It melts with the application of heat and sets up quickly as soon as the hot finishing tool is removed, securing the leaf firmly to the surface. Glair was also used to bind pigments used in medieval manuscript illumination. Also spelled A photograph made primarily to display a person's physical attractiveness (see this classic example). The subject may be scantily clad, but for the purpose of conveying unusual beauty or desirability rather than erotic appeal. The category includes A type of thin, dense, translucent glazed paper sometimes used to protect the covers of new books. Also used for panels in window-envelopes and as wrapping material because it is resistant to the passage of air, water, grease, etc. A photographic negative produced on a sheet of clear glass, either by the wet-collodion method, made inside the camera while the glass plate is still damp with a solution of light-sensitive chemicals, or by the dry-plate method in which light-sensitive particles are suspended in a thin layer of dried gelatin covering the surface of the plate. Besides being heavy, glass negatives have the disadvantage of being very fragile. They are subject to breakage and chipping and to flaking of the emulsion layer. Click here to see an example with a fracture in the upper left-hand corner (Library of Congress) and here to see a reticulated example restored by Getty Images. See also this print made directly from a glass negative, courtesy of the Victoria and Albert Museum, London. Synonymous with A malfunction in the hardware of a computer system, usually temporary or random, sometimes difficult to distinguish from a bug in the software. In a more general sense, any unanticipated problem that brings a process to a halt. Also spelled An operation in an integrated library management system, performed with a few keystrokes, which has a uniform effect on a specified field in every record in the system that contains the field, usually used to add or delete a field, subfield, code, etc., or to substitute one field, code, or element of data for another, for example, in cataloging to change a personal name or corporate name used as a heading to its current form. A worldwide navigational system based on the triangulation of radio signals transmitted by a network of 24 satellites in orbit around the earth, allowing the coordinates of any point on or near the surface of the planet to be determined with a high degree of accuracy at any time and in any weather. GPS receivers have been miniaturized to just a few integrated circuits, making them economical to incorporate into a variety of products. Dana's The entire world considered as a single human community served by electronic media and information technology that transcends physical distance, a concept pioneered in the 1960s by Canadian communication theorist Marshall Mc Luhan, who predicted the Internet as an extension of human consciousness. The concept is also found in the A representation of the surface of the earth, or of another celestial body, on a relatively permanent spherical object, usually a more accurate depiction than a map because it lacks the distortion inherent in any two-dimensional representation of a three-dimensional object. A is a crescent-shaped segment that can be fitted onto the surface of a sphere with minimal deformation. Click here to see a pair of 18th-century globes made by Jean-Antoine Nollet (Getty Museum) and here to view a selection of reproductions of old and planetary models (George Glazer Gallery). The constellations are represented on the surface of a celestial globe, which, by revolving, simulates the apparent movement of the stars (see this 16th-century example in silver, courtesy of Metropolitan Museum of Art). Click here to explore a pair of interactive 16th-century terrestrial and celestial Mercator globes in the map collection of the Harvard College Library. Today, globes are made of heavy paper, papier-mâché, cardboard, plastic, metal, or glass, mounted on a full- or half-meridian axel, in a free cradle, or with gyroscopic support (see these examples). Expensive models may be illuminated and/or animated for special effect. In the United States, the most common sizes are 12 inches and 16 inches in diameter. In libraries, globes are cataloged as cartographic materials. In old manuscripts, an explanation, definition, or interpretation of a word or phrase, sometimes in a more familiar language, written in the margin, above the line of text to which it refers (interlinear), or in a special appendix called a glossary compiled by a . Glosses are common in medieval Bibles and legal texts. In a heavily glossed book, text and commentary might be written in parallel columns, with the glosses in a different script or in a smaller version of the script used for the text. Click here to see glosses in a 12th-century copy of the (Cornell University Library) and here to see a heavily glossed illuminated copy of the decretals of Gregory IX (Schøyen Collection, MS 1978). In some medieval manuscripts, the glosses appear to be glossed, as on this page in a 14th-century Italian legal digest (British Library, Arundel 433). In modern printing, a note in the left- or right-hand margin is called a side note and is usually set in a type size smaller than that of the text to which it refers. The term can also mean a deliberately misleading interpretation. Also refers to the degree to which paper reflects light, a function of the smoothness of its surface. An alphabetically arranged list of the specialized vocabulary of a given subject or field of study, with brief definitions, often appearing at the end of a book or at the beginning of a long entry in a technical reference work. Long glossaries may be separately published (A bible that includes commentary and/or translation, usually written in smaller script or printed in smaller type on the same page as the text. Prior to the 12th century, two types of glossed bibles were used: the , with notation written over the lines, the work of Anselm of Laon (d. After the 12th century, copies of the Vulgate usually contained both glosses. From the 14th century on, additional glosses were added at the foot of the page. Early printed bibles sometimes included all the exegetical glosses. A finish in which the surface of paper or board is given a smooth, shiny coat of varnish to enhance the appearance of visual material (illustrations, posters, etc.). Most magazines are printed on glossy paper to attract readership, as are dust jackets to heighten the sales appeal of new books (see these examples). In publishing, the term also refers to a photograph printed on smooth, shiny paper, the format preferred by printers in reproduction work. A type of adhesive made from protein derived from the collagen in animal by-products (bone, hooves, hides, etc.) boiled to form a brownish gelatin that can be thinned with water. In bookbinding, the application of adhesive to the binding edge of a book after the sections are sewn and before rounding and backing. A visual representation of a textual element (letter, character, ideograph) made by any means: handwritten, inscribed, printed, electronically displayed, etc. Most glues are not suitable for use in binding because they become brittle with age. The adhesive is forced between the sections to help hold them together. In computing, the standard code for a character set does not define the appearance (size, shape, or style) of the individual characters. Image is rendered by the software or hardware using the code. Also used as a shortened form of A book that shows signs of having been chewed by an animal on at least one edge or corner, a condition that reduces its value considerably in the used book market and makes it a candidate for weeding in libraries (see this example). In strategic planning, a general direction or aim that an organization commits itself to attaining in order to further its mission. Goals are usually expressed in abstract terms, with no time limit for realization. The specific means by which they are to be attained is also left open. Leather made from the skin of a goat, used extensively in hand bookbinding from the mid-16th century on, imported into Europe from Turkey and North Africa via Venice and Spain. The names of the various types often reflect place of origin (levant, niger, etc.). Goatskin has a distinctive furrowed grain and, though spongy to the touch, can dry out and harden with age if not kept polished. Because it takes dye well, goatskin used in binding is often richly colored in red, blue, or green. The most common form of decoration is gold tooling. Older books elegantly bound in fine-quality goatskin, known in the antiquarian book trade as morocco, can be very valuable. Click here to see a late 18th-century binding in red straight-grained morocco (Special Collections, Glasgow University Library, BD1-l.3). To see other examples, try a search on the keyword "goatskin" in the British Library's An inexpensive substitute for gold leaf, made by spraying a thin deposit of gold or a look-alike substitute onto an adhesive backing, used extensively to decorate edition bindings and library bindings and also in hand-binding when economy is desired. Synonymous with Gold beaten by hand or mechanical means into very thin sheets, used in bookbinding to embellish lettering, tooling, and the edges of the sections (silver is used less often for the same purpose). Gold leaf is sold in sheets 3 1/2 inches square, made from an alloy of 23 carat gold and 1 carat silver and copper, beaten to a thinness of 1/200,000 to 1/250,000 of an inch. When rubbed between the fingers, gold leaf disintegrates. When dropped, it floats gently to a surface and can be unruffled like a blanket. In medieval manuscripts, gold leaf was used to decorate miniatures, initial letters, and ornamental borders in a process called gilding. Medieval illuminators applied it to layers of gesso to give it a three-dimensional appearance on the page. Gold leaf could be left antique but was usually burnished to a brilliant shine. Goldbeaters used gold coins (florins and ducats) as a convenient source of supply, producing as many as 145 leaves from a single coin. A term used in printing to indicate that the process of preparing the final plates for a work has commenced. Click here to see gold leaf used to illuminate a small miniature, historiated initial, and foliate border 14th-century Italian missal (Getty Museum, MS 34) and here to see it used as a background in an author portrait of St. Subsequent changes or corrections must be added as errata after printing is completed. In newspaper publishing, the corresponding term is A description of condition used in the book trade to indicate that a copy shows some degree of wear but is structurally sound and of reasonable appearance. Such a book will not appeal to fastidious collectors, but may prove a bargain for researchers and general readers for whom pristine condition is not essential. is a specialized search engine, designed to locate scholarly literature (peer-reviewed papers, theses, books, preprints, abstracts, and technical reports) available from academic publishers, professional societies, preprint repositories, and academic libraries, as well as scholarly articles available via the Internet. In the January 2005 issue of signed contracts with the libraries of Harvard University, Stanford University, the University of Michigan, the University of Oxford, and the New York Public Library, but because the company began scanning excerpts from works protected by copyright, as well as works in the public domain, the Authors Guild and the Association of American Publishers (AAP) filed a class action lawsuit against the company in 2005, alleging copyright infringement. The plaintiffs sought to prevent initially invoked the fair use provisions of U. copyright law, but in October 2008 the company backed down and agreed to settle existing monetary claims and establish revenue models designed to compensate authors and publishers for use of their copyrighted books. The settlement includes funds to establish an independent, nonprofit Book Rights Registry to collect and disburse revenue from third party users of content to authors, publishers, and other rights holders. Under the agreement, the Registry will also create and maintain a rights information database for all books (and parts of books) covered by its terms, and be responsible for resolving disputes over rights. The Open Book Alliance has criticized the agreement and the U. Department of Justice has opened an antitrust investigation of its implications. Click here to find information on the settlement provided by the American Library Association (ALA) and here to learn about the settlement in , search results are ranked by relevance using an algorithm that examines the full-text of the work, its author(s), the publication in which the article appeared, and how many times the work has been cited in other scholarly literature. Currently in beta test, provides access to abstracts, peer-reviewed papers, periodical articles, theses, and books from academic publishers, professional societies, preprint repositories, university intranets, and other scholarly organizations. For libraries with holdings listed in the OCLC (named after the mascot of the University of Minnesota where the software was developed). Although they have fallen into disuse since the introduction of graphical Web browsers, Gopher servers have two advantages over Web search engines: they list Internet resources of types (FTP files, Usenet newsgroups, etc.), not just Web sites, and they present resources in a logical hierarchy of directories created by a human being, rather than relying on an automated Web crawler ("spider") to locate information. The tools developed for searching Gopher file directories are named The text of the canonical Gospels, accounts of the life of Christ attributed to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, reproduced separately from the rest of the Bible, often preceded by introductory texts such as the . From the 7th to the 12th century, the most important and beautifully illuminated manuscripts produced in western Europe were the large Gospel books used in Church services, in which each of the four Gospels often began with an author portrait and a lavishly decorated incipit page. Click here to view pages from the 7th-century Coined by the 16th-century art critic Giorgio Vasari to describe Western Europe art produced prior to the beginning of the Renaissance, which he regarded as inferior, the term is applied by contemporary art historians to the period from the late 12th to the early 14th century, and for some regions to the late 16th century, depending on the speed with which Renaissance style was adopted. In the early Gothic period, manuscript production was dominated by lavishly decorated psalters from workshops all over Europe (click here to browse an example by Matthew Paris, courtesy of the British Library). The commercial book trade became well-established by the mid-13th century at urban centers such as Paris and Oxford, where universities flourished, bringing to an end the monastic monopoly of book production. There was also a steady increase in use of the vernacular in literary composition. In the later Gothic period, the English and French styles of book decoration became increasingly interdependent and the Book of Hours was adopted as a fashionable personal accessory, particularly in France and Flanders. Michelle Brown notes in (Getty Museum/British Library, 1994) that Gothic style was characterized by 1) an affinity for the courtly and the grotesque; 2) an interest in naturalistic depiction of the human figure; 3) increased attention to the decoration of initials, frames, and borders; and 4) greater reliance on gilding. Click here to browse the A bold, dark, angular script executed with a broad-nibed pen. Developed in northern Europe during the 12th and 13th centuries, gothic was widely used as a book hand during the late Middle Ages and adapted as a typeface in early printed books, particularly Bibles and other liturgical and devotional works. It is characterized by compression, lack of curves, contrast between broad main strokes and fine hair strokes, regular verticals, uniform counters, diagonal couplings, and extensive use of abbreviation. Emphasis is on the uniformity of the word, rather than the distinctiveness of individual letterforms. Click here to see an example of 13th-century gothic minuscule (Cornell University Library) and here to see gothic script in its fully developed form (textura) in a 15th-century German psalter (Cary Collection, Rochester Institute). Click here to see a 15th-century example of cursive gothic script (Van Pelt Library, Univ. Also refers to any modern typeface resembling gothic script. The first book printed in Europe from movable type, the (1764) established the genre. In modern usage, a subgenre of romance fiction, popular during the 18th and early 19th centuries, in which the setting is dark and gloomy, the action grotesque or violent, the characters strange or malevolent, the plot mysterious, and the mood often one of decadence or degeneration ( (water paint). An opaque watercolor drawing or painting, made with pigment suspended in water. Gouache differs from watercolor in the larger size of its pigment particles, higher ratio of pigment to water, and the addition of gum or an inert white pigment such as chalk, which gives the result higher reflective properties. The medium is often combined with pastels, India ink, and transparent watercolors, as in this example by Anselm Kiefer, courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum. The arrangements by which the faculty and administration of an academic institution control and direct institutional affairs, usually through bylaws, elective offices, committees, etc. In libraries, federal documents are usually shelved in a separate section by Su Docs number. In academic libraries, participation in governance may be a factor in tenure and promotion decisions affecting librarians who have faculty status. The category also includes publications of other governmental bodies (state, local, territorial, foreign). Also refers to the local arrangements for oversight of the operations of a public library or library system, often by an elected or appointed board of trustees. federal government normally maintains its own records, which may or may not be publicly accessible, depending on whether its activities are exempted from public disclosure under the A government agency authorized by legislation to provide centralized archival services for all, or a portion of, the agencies or units that administer a country's government (legislative, executive, and judicial). state governments maintains its own state archives, sometimes as a unit of the state library. Abbreviated A permanent round table within the American Library Association (ALA), GODORT has a membership of government documents librarians and others who have an interest in government documents collections and librarianship. The core data elements of the GILS system are: title, control identifier, abstract, purpose, originator, use constraints, availability, point of contact for further information, record source, and date last modified. The records of over 30 federal agencies have been mounted on the Web site maintained by the U. Government Printing Office, which also provides pointers to GILS sites maintained by other federal departments and agencies. A unit of government authorized by law or regulation to perform a specific function, for example, the U. Government Printing Office (GPO) authorized to collect, publish, and distribute government documents to the American public. For the federal government of the United States, that agency is the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). GODORT publishes the quarterly journal A decentralized collection of agency-based information locators that uses network technology and international metadata standards based on ANSI Z39.50 to direct users to publicly accessible information resources available from the U. The National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) is an example of an online government information service based on the GILS standard. Some state governments have established Internet sites based on the GILS model, enabling users to discover, identify, locate, and access publicly available state government information. In 1995, the G7 (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, and United States) commissioned several pilot projects to demonstrate the potential of a global information infrastructure. One of these, the Environment and Natural Resources Management Project, was an attempt to use the GILS format to establish an international distributed database of information about the earth, a first step toward a Global Information Locator Service. In the United States, a library maintained by a unit of government at the local, state, or federal level, containing collections primarily for the use of its staff. Some government libraries have a wider mandate that includes accessibility to the general public ( states that government publications, except those "required for official use only or for strictly administrative or operational purposes which have no public interest or educational value and publications classified for reasons of national security," are to be made publicly available to depository libraries by the Superintendent of Documents. Government Printing Office, the government agency responsible for collecting, publishing, and distributing federal government information. A designated period of time following the due date during which a borrower may renew an overdue item or return it to the library without incurring a fine. The term is also used in a broader sense to include documents published by local, state, territorial, and foreign governments. The GPO publishes a printed index to government documents under the title As of September 1, 2003, the U. Government Printing Office (GPO) closed all its regional bookstores, except the main outlet in Washington, D. The closures were the result of an overall decline in sales due to increasing access to government information via the Internet and the shift from walk-in traffic at bookstores to purchases from the U. To encourage the return of long-overdue materials, some libraries also set aside one day (or several days) each year during which overdue items may be returned without penalty. Synonymous with A liturgical book containing a complete collection of the chants used in the Catholic Mass, arranged according to the liturgical year. Graduals were among the largest books produced during the Middle Ages because the musical notation and script had to be of a size that could be read from a single copy by members of the choir. Often beautifully illuminated, many graduals survive only in fragments. Click here to see a page from a 15th-century German gradual (A disc-shaped symbol representing quantifiable data on a thematic map, proportional in area to the amount represented relative to other symbols of the same type on the same map (see this example). On some maps, the discs are subdivided like a pie graph to convey additional information about the variable (see this example showing major industries in Germany, courtesy of the Perry-Castañeda Library). Synonymous with The academic library at a university that maintains separate collections (and usually facilities) for undergraduates and graduate students, containing the major research collections, staffed and equipped to meet the information needs of graduate students and faculty but also open to undergraduates (In a sheet of machine-made paper or board, the direction in which most of the fibers lie, determined by forward movement of the papermaking machine in manufacture. Books are printed with the grain parallel to the spine because paper bends more readily with the grain than against it. One way to determine the grain in a sheet of paper is to do a --paper tears more cleanly with the grain than across it. There is little or no grain in a sheet of handmade paper. Woven material used as covering material in bookbinding also has grain--as a general rule, the warp threads run parallel to the spine. Grain in leather depends on the direction in which the hairs lay before removal, indicated by tiny puncture marks on the surface. Click here to see straight grain on an 18th-century morocco bookbinding (Special Collections, Glasgow University Library, BD1-l.3) and here to see pebble grain on a late 19th-century binding (Glasgow, Ag-d.46). Leather used in bookbinding that has been processed to accentuate the natural grain or give the surface an artificial texture, either as decoration or to enhance durability. The perceptible granular appearance of the image on a photographic negative, print, or slide, caused by the clumping together of particles of silver halide in the emulsion that bears the image, an effect that becomes more pronounced with the use of faster film and with degree of enlargement. Filmmakers sometimes use graininess to imitate old films or to give their work a documentary look (A book written to instruct students in the formal rules of speaking and writing a language, based on scholarly study of its morphology and syntax. During the Middle Ages, the term referred to the study of classical Latin, the language in which most books were written. Click here to see an opening in a 14th-century Latin grammar (Cornell University Library). Also refers to the rules themselves and to a person's use of them. An award presented annually by the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences (NARAS) in over 100 categories, in recognition of excellence in the music recording industry. Winners are presented with a small gilded statuette of a gramophone in a ceremony featuring performances by prominent artists. Established in 1958, the Grammys are the musical equivalent of the Emmy Awards for television, the Tony Awards for stage, and the Academy Awards (Oscars) for motion pictures. Some of the awards of popular interest can be viewed in a widely televised ceremony. Originally called the : Council on Library and Information Resources) or government-sponsored organization (National Endowment for the Humanities) by an individual, group, or institution in support of a worthy project or cause. In most cases, the recipient must compete for such funds by submitting a proposal. The art of obtaining grants is called Funds received by a library or library system from a state or federal government agency in support of regular operations, or a special project or program, as opposed to funds derived from the community or district served. In most cases, the library must apply in a competitive process by submitting a proposal (The art of successfully obtaining and administering grants and grants-in-aid, including the ability to recognize when an idea is fundable, locate funding sources, research the information necessary to fill out the application, establish a realistic timetable, write the proposal, and manage the grant process once funding is approved. When grant funding is a high priority, a college or university usually employs a trained and experienced The level of descriptive detail in a record created to represent a document or information resource for the purpose of retrieval, for example, whether the record structure in a bibliographic database allows the author's name to be parsed into given name and surname. A diagram that shows (1) quantity in relation to a whole (pie graph), (2) the distribution of separate values of a variable in relation to another (scatter graph), or (3) change in the value of a variable in relation to another (coordinate graph, histogram, etc.), for example, change in the average price of a journal subscription over time. The suffix -graph, derived from the Greek word Any two-dimensional nontextual, still representation. Graphics can be opaque (illustrations, photographs, diagrams, maps, charts, graphs, etc.) or designed to be viewed or projected without motion using optical equipment (slides, filmstrips, etc.). Magazines and art books usually contain a high proportion of graphic material. In marketing new books, the graphic appeal of the dust jacket is an important factor. Computer graphics are created with the aid of graphic design software. : American Institute of Graphic Arts, animated graphics, computer graphics, graphical user interface, and thumbnail. In printing, a typeface that appears to have been drawn, rather than derived from a calligraphic hand or lapidary precursor. A computer interface that allows the user to provide input and receive output interactively by manipulating menu bars, icons, and movable, resizable windows by means of a keyboard or pointing device such as a mouse. GUIs are used in Web browsers and in most word processing, spreadsheet, and graphics applications. The quality of a GUI depends on its functionality and usability. Some GUIs are comparatively simple; others are visually complex (compare the A work that tells a story in the pictorial panel-to-panel format of comic books. The category includes graphic novels, manga (Japan), bandes dessinées (France and Belgium), fotonovelas (Spain and Latin America), and sequential art. Click here to learn more about graphic narrative, courtesy of Gutter Geek. Synonymous with (1978), written and illustrated in comic book style, the first work in a new format in which an extended narrative is presented as a continuous sequence of pictorial images printed in color or black and white and arranged panel-to-panel, with text given in captions and dialogue usually enclosed in balloons. A precursor can be found in the albums of the 19th-century Swiss writer Rodolphe Topffer, who also wrote novels in conventional form. This new literary form is viewed with suspicion by traditionalists who regard it as a marketing ploy aimed at attracting adult readers to comic books by removing the stigma attached to them. Click here to read the entry on graphic novels in A thin, flat computer input device that allows the user to enter hand-drawn graphical information, such as images or a signature, into a computer by applying a pen-like stylus to its surface. Synonymous with Writing paper, available in sheets or bound in a notebook, printed with fine lines in a regular grid, commonly used for plotting mathematical functions or experimental data and for drawing diagrams and designs intended to be transferred to another surface, often on a different scale (see this example). Commonly used grid patterns are also available online as PDF files for computer users who prefer to print as needed rather than buy pre-printed graph paper. A network of intersecting lines on the face of a map or chart, representing degrees of latitude (parallels) and longitude (meridians), used for reference and to determine position in navigation. Examples of various projections can be seen in Carlos Furuti's A map showing anomalies in the gravitational field of the earth over all or a portion of its surface, usually by the use of differential tint, with or without relief (see this example), or by isolines (as in this example). Not fully understood, gravity anomalies are believed to be the result of variations in the density of the earth's crust and upper mantle. Click here to see the first global gravity map of Earth and here to read about the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) that produced it, courtesy of ABC News. Documentary material in print and electronic formats, such as reports, preprints, internal documents (memoranda, newsletters, market surveys, etc.), theses and dissertations, conference proceedings, technical specifications and standards, trade literature, etc., not readily available through regular market channels because it was never commercially published/listed or was not widely distributed. Such works pose challenges to libraries in identification (indexing is often limited) and acquisition (availability may be uncertain). Absence of editorial control also raises questions of authenticity and reliability. Alternative methods of supply and bibliographic control have evolved in response to the need to preserve and provide access to such material. In the United States, the gray literature of science and technology is indexed in the NTIS database. Theses and dissertations are indexed and abstracted in Variations in the density of black which a scanner or computer monitor can recognize and reproduce, or contained in a black-and-white image, arranged in sequence. In printing and film developing, the sequence is usually from 10 to 90 percent. Also, a calibration target showing a standardized continuum of shades between black and white used to determine image-capture device specifications (see this example). A nonprofit foundation established in 1947 by Robert Maynard Hutchins, then president of the University of Chicago, and professor and author Mortimer J. Adler to encourage lifelong learning at the grass-roots level through the reading and discussion of enduring works of literature and philosophy. The Foundation provides reading materials for over 850 Great Books discussion groups that meet regularly in libraries, homes, schools, and community centers. Not all the selected readings are classics--the Foundation strives to select works of high literary merit, rich in discussable ideas. In 1962, the Foundation introduced Junior Great Books to extend the benefits of its programs to elementary, middle, and high school students. The junior program is used in thousands of public and private schools in the United States. The Great Books Foundation publishes the quarterly magazine Derived from Coptic binding, Greek style was an early form of bookbinding with many distinctive characteristics. The sections were sewn together using a recessed chain stitch, producing a smooth, rounded spine that was lined with a wide band of coarse cloth. Prominent endbands sewn to the body through each gathering were fastened into grooves in the thick boards. Flush with the edges of the sections, the wooden boards often had grooved edges. The cover, usually in red or brown calf or goatskin, had projecting head- and tailcaps to protect the endbands. Strap-and-pin fastenings made of braided leather were often attached to the head and tail, as well as to the fore-edge of the binding. Geoffrey Glaister notes in (Oak Knoll/British Library, 1996) that this style was used on the earliest Greek bindings and in Russia from the 11th to 15th century for theological works. It was also revived in 16th-century Europe for binding classical Greek texts. To see examples, try a keywords search on the term "greek style" in the British Library's A literary award presented annually since 1956 by the Library Association (UK) to the artist judged to have produced the most distinguished work in the illustration of children's books published in the United Kingdom during the preceding calendar year. Click here to view a list of Greenaway Medal winners. A form of blanket order plan in which a large library or library system agrees to receive from a publisher for a nominal price one advance copy of all the trade books it publishes, to encourage acquisitions librarians to order selected titles in advance of publication. The publisher relies on the probability that a sufficient number of titles will be ordered in multiple copies to cover its costs. The plan is named after Emerson Greenaway, the librarian at the Philadelphia Free Library who conceived the idea in 1958. Acceptance by libraries of environment-friendly discard options, such as book sales, book giveaways, paperback swaps, and recycling. A printed document issued in green paper covers by a ministry or department of the British government to elicit public comment and debate on a proposed new policy or change in an existing one. Some companies, such as B-Logistics and Better World Books, specialize in reselling library discards. A card, usually enclosed in an envelope, given or sent on a special occasion, often bearing a hand-written or printed message of good will. Novelty greeting cards are usually made of materials other than paper or are unusual in shape or size. The category includes birthday cards, Christmas cards, get-well cards, valentines, etc. Considered a form of ephemera, greeting cards are collected by libraries mainly for their historical value. A Cartesian reference system consisting of two sets of parallel lines intersecting at right angles, usually at regular intervals to form squares or rectangles, superimposed on a map or other two-dimensional image for use in locating specific points or features by means of coordinates, based on a sequence of numeric values or alphabetic characters, usually written or printed across the top and/or bottom margin, with a second sequence along one or both sides (click here to see an example on a late 19th-century map of Toronto). Click here to see Victorian valentines and here to see Victorian holiday cards, courtesy of The Lilly Library, Indiana University. Bush awarded him the Medal of Freedom, the nation's highest civilian honor. In an atlas, the grids are usually keyed to a gazetteer of place names that gives the page number and grid coordinates for each entry. Currently president of the Carnegie Corporation of New York, a grant-making institution founded by Andrew Carnegie in 1911, Vartan Gregorian spent eight years as president of the New York Public Library (1981-1989), where he gained a reputation as a leading authority on library philanthropy, followed by nine years as president of Brown University (1989-1997). On a map or chart used for navigation, the coordinates can also be used to calculate direction and distance from point to point. One of the most commonly used is the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) grid. Click here to learn more about grid systems, courtesy of Geo STAC. In the workplace, a formal complaint concerning a specific action or policy, set of circumstances, or persistent condition addressed by an employee or group of employees to management, to a special committee established to hear grievances, or to some other appropriate authority, to protest its unfairness and request a remedy. A naturalized American citizen, Gregorian was born in Tabriz, Iran to Armenian parents and educated in Iran, Lebanon, and at Stanford University, where he was awarded a Ph. Click here to see the UTM grid zones of the world and here to see the UTM grid for Madeira Bay in South Florida (U. Most organizations have an established procedure for filing grievances and negotiating their settlement. In library employment governed by collective bargaining agreement, the grievance procedure and conditions under which it applies may be explicitly stated in the contract. , meaning "gray." Monochrome painting done entirely in tones of gray (or another neutral color) to depict objects in relief. The effect is achieved by combining dark pigment and an inert white, with touches of color sometimes added to create highlights. In , portions of the image (usually flesh and/or background) are done in color and the rest in shades of gray (see this example, courtesy of the British Library). The technique was used in medieval illuminated manuscripts and stained glass church windows from the late 13th century on. Click here to view a miniature done in grisaille in the 15th-century Book of Hours of Philip the Good (Koninklijke Bibliotheek), and here to see examples of semi-grisaille in a 15th-century French translation of the anonymous A style of ornamental bookbinding named after bindings commissioned by the 16th-century French bibliophile Jean Grolier, Vicomte d'Aguisy (1479-1565) for books in his personal collection, the decoration typically consisting of open interlace strapwork, plain or polychromatic, in a geometrical pattern (circles, squares, lozenges), often with a tooled central motif, plain gilt edges, and vellum paste-down endleaves. Click here to view an example in brown calf (Bridwell Library, Southern Methodist University) and here to see a more ornate example (Royal Library of Denmark). Click here to see a late-19th-century retrospective example (Princeton University Library). To see other examples, try a keyword search on the term "grolier" in the British Library's Founded in 1884, the Grolier Club of New York City is named for the French Renaissance bibliophile and book collector Jean Grolier, Vicomte d'Aguisy (1479-1565), known for his willingness to share his private library with friends. With over 700 members, the Club is the oldest and largest society for bibliophiles and graphic arts enthusiasts in the United States. Its primary goal is to advance study and appreciation of the book arts. Membership is by nomination, with recommendation based on the candidate's demonstrated passion for books and collecting. The Club maintains a library of over 100,000 volumes in a townhouse at East 60th Street in midtown Manhattan, where it sponsors book-related lectures and public exhibitions. Click here to connect to the homepage of the Grolier Club. A distorted, fantastic, or incongruous figure drawn or painted in the margin of an illuminated manuscript, incorporated into the decoration of an initial letter, or hidden in an ornamental border. According to Geoffrey Glaister ( (Getty Museum/British Library, 1994) that the grotesques found in medieval manuscripts are usually unrelated to the text, but some may have meaning associated with their appearance in bestiaries. Christopher de Hamel suggests that some may have served as mnemonic devices, since medieval manuscripts were neither foliated nor paginated (, University of Toronto Press, 2001). Click here to view an example painted on the corner of a 14th-century Italian antiphonal (Bodleian Library, MS Don.a.11), here to see an example in the 14th-century A representational work (drawing, painting, photograph) in which the subject is two or more individuals (see this example by John Singer Sargent). The category includes groups assembled by means of photomontage, by combination printing techniques, or in the imagination of the artist. Computer software designed to support more than one user connected to a LAN, usually colleagues working together on related tasks whose offices are not in the same location. Although groupware is an evolving concept, most products include a messaging system, document sharing and management software, a calendaring and scheduling system for coordinating meetings and tracking the progress of group projects, electronic conferencing, and an electronic newsletter (A flexible paper or muslin strip inserted along the inner margin between two leaves prior to sewing the sections of a book, used to mount a text leaf or plate, or an insert too stiff to turn like a normal page. Also refers to a strip of paper or other material added to reinforce a signature in a book or to compensate for the thickness of material added after binding. In medieval manuscripts, parchment guards were sometimes folded around the binding edge of a quire or bifolium for strength, especially when the leaves were of paper. In preservation rebinding, the leaves of a manuscript may be mounted on guards to retain information of interest to codicologists (see this example). A book that includes short compensation stubs, called guards, sewn into the sections, equal in thickness to material to be inserted between the leaves subsequent to binding. Their purpose is to keep the volume from bulging open. A guard book may consist entirely of blank leaves interleaved with stubs. Also spelled A blankbook used to record the names of persons attending a ceremony or event, such as a wedding or exhibition, or visitors to a facility, such as a museum, gallery, club, etc. The date and street address or place of origin of each guest may also be recorded. Click here to see an historically important example, courtesy of the Law Society of Upper Canada. Synonymous with Information provided by a library, usually in the form of a printed handout or leaflet, that (1) explains how to use a library service (online catalog, interlibrary loan, etc.); (2) describes important resources on a subject (World War II), in a discipline (history), or of a specific form (periodical articles, government documents, biography, etc.); or (3) explains how to accomplish something (compile an annotated bibliography, cite sources in a particular bibliographical style, etc.). In archives, a type of finding aid that (1) provides a summary or general description of the contents of an archival collection or (2) describes archival holdings related to a specific subject, geographic area, period in history, etc., or of a certain type of material (diaries, letters, photographs, etc.). A handbook that provides useful current information for travelers to a city, state, region, country, or other geographic area or for visitors to a museum, park, historical site, etc. In medieval manuscripts and early printed books, a small letter written in cursive or printed in small type in the center of a space left blank at the beginning of a paragraph or other division, indicating the initial letter to be added by a rubrisher or illuminator after the text has been copied or printed. Painted over on the finished page, guide letters are seen only in copies with incomplete rubrication and/or illumination (see this 15th-century example, courtesy of the University of Pittsburgh Libraries). Guide letters were necessary in manuscript production when the exemplar was no longer available. Additional instructions for decorating initials (subject, style, color, etc.) might also be provided, usually unobtrusively in hard point or metal point. Recommended procedures for accomplishing a given task or achieving a set of goals and objectives, formulated by a body with authority to speak on the subject but less binding than the formal standards used in evaluation and assessment, for example, is the definitive selection aid for developing reference collections in North America. For decades, it was compiled in the Reference Department of the Columbia University Library, but the eleventh edition published in 1996 is the work of 50 reference librarians from major academic libraries across the United States, many of them subject specialists who based their selections primarily on the collections of their own research libraries. Emphasis is on English-language printed works published in North America. Entries are based on MARC records cataloged by the Library of Congress. Each entry includes an annotation intended to acquaint the reader with the purpose, scope, coverage, arrangement, special features, audience, and usefulness of the work. The list is classified in five parts (General Reference; Humanities; Social and Behavioral Sciences; History and Area Studies; and Science, Technology, and Medicine), with a combined author, title, and subject index at the end. Founded in 1906, the Guild of Book Workers is an association of workers in the hand book crafts, who seek to broaden public awareness of the book arts, stimulate commissions of fine bindings, and promote the need for sound book conservation and restoration. GBW sponsors national exhibitions and publishes the annual A power-driven or hand-operated machine with a long, sharp-edged blade, used in binding since 1840 to cut and trim large numbers of flat or folded sheets to the desired dimensions (see this modern industrial example). A guillotine makes a straight cut, as distinct from other methods of cutting used in binding, such as die-cutting, slitting, perforating, etc. Before the guillotine was invented, binders used a tool called a "plough" consisting of a cutting blade held between two blocks of wood, drawn manually along the edges of the sections, with the text block firmly clamped in a press. In bookbinding, a style of decoration consisting of a continuous series of closely spaced, short parallel lines aligned perpendicular to the edge of the cover, produced by a fillet engraved with a pattern resembling the edge of an old English gold coin called the A photographic process introduced in 1894 in which a sheet of paper is coated with a mixture of gum arabic, potassium bichromate, and pigment that hardens in proportion to the amount of ultraviolet light striking it in exposure. The unexposed areas of the layer are dissolved in water and washed away in development, leaving the hardened gum, which can be physically manipulated (dissolved, thinned, brushed out) selectively in development to produce a wide range of painterly effects. The image can be re-sensitized and re-exposed several times to alter tone, texture, and color, giving the photographer considerable imaginative scope and creative control over the resulting print, but often at the expense of detail. Click here to see examples (Getty Museum) and here to see another example (Metropolitan Museum of Art). A goldsmith by trade, Johann Gensfleisch zum Gutenberg is credited with the invention printing from movable type, probably at Mainz in Germany. His first printed work was a 42-line Bible set in gothic type probably printed no later than 1456. Uncertainty regarding Gutenberg's accomplishment arises from the lack of recorded information about his life and the fact that no extant work bears his name, nor have any of his presses survived. The printing press spread rapidly to the Netherlands, Italy, France, and England, becoming well-established in Europe by the 1480s. The Gutenberg Museum was established in Mainz in 1900 as a center for the study of Gutenberg's life and work and the early history of typography. The earliest known book produced in Europe from movable type, probably printed between 14 at Mainz, Germany, by Johann Gutenberg and his associate Peter Schöffer, with the financial assistance of a merchant named Johann Fust, also known as the because a copy was found by a French bookseller in the private library of the bibliophile Cardinal Mazarin (1602-1661) 100 years after his death. Because no date, place of printing, or name of printer appears on the work, the circumstances under which it was produced cannot be determined with precision. The is a Latin Bible printed in black ink in gothic type set in two 42-line columns per page. Of approximately 180 copies printed, only 48 are known to have survived, which makes them very rare and valuable. The British Library owns 2 copies, and the Bibliothèque Nationale de France 1. In the United States, there are 13 copies, 1 each at the Library of Congress, the New York Public Library, the Huntington Library in California, and at the libraries of Harvard, Princeton, and Yale. Click here to see digital images of the two beautifully illuminated copies in the collections of the British Library. The Ransom Center at the University of Texas at Austin has digitized its entire copy. See also The practice, abhorred by publishers, of reviewing a book, not by critically evaluating its strengths and/or weaknesses but by revealing the main lines of its plot, ruining the experience of first-time readers. Also refers to the practice in publishing of carefully quoting out of context, in the blurb on the dust jacket and in advertising, only the most complimentary passages from reviews that, in their entirety, expressed mixed or even negative opinions of the work. A figure initial in an illuminated manuscript or early printed book composed of anthropomorphic, zoomorphic, or zoo-anthropomorphic forms, stretched or contorted by the illuminator into impossible or unlikely positions to create the letterform. Click here to view a frowning blue griffin in the shape of the letter "A" in a 14th-century Italian antiphonal (Bodleian Library, MS Don.a.11) and here to see a pink griffin in the shape of the letter "S" in a 13th-century German psalter (Getty Museum, MS Ludwig VIII 2). Ilturco è un’ associazione di promozione sociale e culturale, con sede a Ferrara. Il suo obiettivo è riattivare spazi privati inutilizzati.

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